ADCC/CDC Enhancement in Therapeutic Antibody Development

ADCC/CDC Enhancement in Therapeutic Antibody Development

May 25, 2024

Therapeutic antibodies, engineered through biotechnology, represent a specialized class of antibodies used in disease treatment. These antibodies are designed to target specific disease markers, such as malignant tumors, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. Compared to traditional antibody therapies, therapeutic antibodies offer higher specificity and fewer side effects.

In the realm of immunotherapy, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) stands out as a highly effective anti-tumor mechanism. ADCC enhancement refers to the bolstering of immune cells' ability to attack malignant cells, thereby enhancing the efficacy of immunotherapy. ADCC enhancement technology finds significant applications in the field of therapeutic antibodies, encompassing techniques like fucosylation engineering, Fc protein-engineering, cross-isotype engineering, and glyco- and Fc protein dual engineering.

Furthermore, antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis (ADCP) plays a pivotal role in the action of therapeutic antibodies. The ADCP assay serves as an experimental method for studying antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis. This research investigates whether antibodies assist immune cells, such as macrophages, in recognizing, engulfing, and digesting labeled target cells or pathogens. Through the ADCP assay, researchers can assess whether therapeutic antibodies activate immune cells to attack and eliminate tumor cells, instilling renewed optimism in cancer treatment.

CDC enhancement, a classical approach to fortifying the immune system, amplifies the cytotoxicity of antibodies. Immunotherapy often hinges on antibody action, and CDC enhancement accentuates the activation of the complement system by antibodies, inducing cell toxicity and ultimately eradicating target cells.

In CDC enhancement, antibodies (typically therapeutic monoclonal antibodies) bind to antigens on the surface of target cells, triggering the activation of the C1q molecule in the complement system. C1q further instigates the complement cascade reaction in the immune system, culminating in the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). This process ruptures target cell membranes and leads to cell lysis, achieving cytotoxic effects on the target cells. Researchers assess the binding capacity of therapeutic antibodies with C1q through the C1q binding assay, determining the antibody's effectiveness in the immune response.

Researchers have surmounted numerous challenges in disease treatment through advanced techniques such as the C1q binding Assay and ADCP assay. In cancer treatment, scientists have successfully developed a series of antibodies targeting specific antigens. These drugs activate immune cells, propelling them to engulf and annihilate cancer cells. The successful application of this immunotherapy brings renewed hope to tumor treatment.

In the domain of autoimmune disease treatment, researchers are leveraging antibodies to target diseases resulting from immune system overactivation. Through meticulous C1q binding assay studies, scientists can pinpoint the most suitable antibodies for treatment, precisely modulating the immune system's activity to achieve therapeutic goals.

Moreover, in the realm of treating viral and bacterial infections, the utilization of the ADCP assay is on the rise. Researchers have formulated a series of antibodies targeting pathogens, effectively eliminating infection sources by stimulating immune cells to engulf these pathogens. Consequently, this approach has significantly heightened the success rate of infectious disease treatments.

With the continuous evolution of single-cell technologies and CRISPR gene editing techniques, researchers can delve deeper into cell death mechanisms, antibody structures, and immune cell functions. This progress will further accelerate research on ADCC enhancement, offering more precise and efficient means for disease treatment.

Leave a Reply

Related Products

You Might Like Also

New Alzheimer's Disease Drug Receives Full FDA Approval

On January 6, 2023, lecanemab (trade name Leqembi), an Alzheimer's disease drug developed by Eisai and Biogen, received conditional approval from the FDA. The results of its Phase 3 clinical trial showed that the drug slowed cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease patients by 27%. The FDA has conducted a further review of the clinical trial results to determine whether the drug can be fully approved. Read More

Summer's Invisible Killer—Mosquitoes

As summer unfolds in the year 2023, people will contend with not only scorching temperatures but also the constant annoyance of mosquitoes buzzing around and biting at every opportunity. The combination of high temperatures and factors such as food spoilage creates an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes, making them a prominent threat during the summer months. Read More

Novel Therapies Based on Small-Molecule Antibodies Hold Immense Promise

Antibodies, the extraordinary proteins that serve as the frontline troops of the human immune system, have recently gained attention for their ability to combat tiny compounds known as haptens. Because of their small size, these elusive targets present particular difficulty for the immune system to identify as foreign invaders. However, researchers' inventiveness has resulted in the creation of several techniques to bypass this barrier and unleash the full potential of hapten antibodies. Read More

Navigating the Post-Pandemic Era: Optimizing SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Responses

The COVID-19 pandemic, which emerged at the end of 2019, may have receded from public consciousness, but its impact continues to reverberate. Over the past three years, countries worldwide have grappled with multiple waves of widespread infection. Although many nations have now established immunity barriers, the risk of long COVID symptoms and recurrent infections still looms large. Such repeated infections could have a profound effect on individuals' immune function. Read More

How to Avoid Allergies and Happily Pet Cats

The cat allergy is arguably the saddest development for cat lovers. The moment you come in contact with the cat, you start to sneeze, experience runny nose, itchy eyes, skin rashes, and even have asthma problems. Read More

Advancing Drug Development: Strategies for Prolonging Drug Half-Life

The realm of biopharmaceuticals plays a crucial role in modern medical treatment, yet faces significant challenges. A notable concern is the brief half-life of many biopharmaceutical products, leading to swift degradation and clearance from the patient's body, necessitating frequent dosing. This article delves into the ways in which half-life extension strategies in drug development can effectively tackle this issue, enhancing patient convenience and optimizing therapeutic outcomes. Read More