Summer's Invisible Killer—Mosquitoes

Summer's Invisible Killer—Mosquitoes

May 25, 2024

As summer unfolds in the year 2023, people will contend with not only scorching temperatures but also the constant annoyance of mosquitoes buzzing around and biting at every opportunity. The combination of high temperatures and factors such as food spoilage creates an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes, making them a prominent threat during the summer months.

But why are mosquitoes considered the killers of summer? The three main mosquito species, Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles, are effective vectors for the transmission of various deadly viruses. Among them, Aedes aegypti, commonly found in subtropical and tropical regions, is the primary transmitter of the dengue virus.

Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the dengue virus transmitted through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, continues to be a significant global health challenge. With millions of people affected annually, accurate and timely diagnosis is crucial for managing the disease and preventing severe complications.

Traditional diagnostic methods for dengue infection include serological tests that detect dengue-specific IgM and IgG antibodies, or viral RNA detection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, recent research has focused on improving diagnostic accuracy and efficiency through IgM antibody engineering.

A study published in Frontiers in Immunology, titled "Association of Dengue Infection with Anti-alpha-gal Antibodies, IgM, IgG, IgG1, and IgG2," investigated the variation in alpha-gal antibody titers among participants from a dengue-endemic area in Norte de Santander, based on their infective status detected by dengue IgM testing, location, days of symptoms, and dengue disease severity classification. Additionally, the study also revealed a significant positive correlation between anti-alpha-gal IgG and the duration of dengue symptoms in patients.

As described in the article, a positive ELISA test for specific IgM antibodies in the patient's serum confirms dengue virus infection. Consequently, researchers and diagnostic service providers have been working on improving dengue diagnostic methods through IgM antibody engineering services, aiming to provide innovative diagnostic solutions.

By combining the constant region of IgG antibodies with the variable region of IgM antibodies, engineered IgM antibodies offer enhanced stability, specificity, and ease of production. These modified antibodies have demonstrated improved diagnostic capabilities, serving as valuable tools for dengue detection. They can enhance the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic assays, leading to more accurate and reliable results.

In addition to the dengue virus transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, other disease-causing pathogens, such as the encephalitis B virus and malaria parasites, are also carried by mosquitoes. The period from July to August makes the endemic season for encephalitis B.

Given the severity of these infectious diseases, early and accurate diagnosis plays a vital role in containing the spread of the viruses. In order to reduce the incidence of these infections during the later stages of development, numerous scientists have focused on the non-IgG antibody application for clinical diagnosis.

In conclusion, ongoing research and collaboration among scientists, healthcare professionals, and antibody development service providers are essential for further refining and implementing these diagnostic advancements. These efforts bring us closer to achieving effective control and prevention of mosquito-borne viral diseases on a global scale.

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